A linear city is an urban settlement of cluster type in which the surface of the earth is intended for pedestrians and green plants, and transport, energy and information communications are located above the ground on the "second level" (on special supports). The basic principle of the construction of each infrastructure cluster is a pedestrian quarter, in which comfortable low-rise buildings with the widespread greening of urban areas and the use of renewable energy sources are located between multifunctional high-rise buildings, all interconnected by horizontal lifts.
The key element of the system are horizontal lifts (transport arteries), connecting the neighboring high-rise buildings, settlements, residential, shopping, entertainment and other clusters, allowing people to comfortably move between them in a matter of minutes. An important advantage is that the cost of public transport can be included, as with conventional elevators in the buildings, into the cost per square meter of a quarter of the linear city while maintaining the average comparative cost of new housing.
Space programme of the hyperspeed transport (with the travel speed more than 1,000 km/h in a forevacuum tube) is under the technology of engineer Yunitski. Engineer and scientist Yunitski started to develop this technology more than 40 years ago. The technology of Space programmes is currently under development and will be protected by international patents.
What concerns the programme, no country in the world, including NASA in the USA and the Roscosmos State Corporation in the Russian Federation, has a similar programme of space exploration alternative to a conventional carrier rocket. This programme is socially oriented, for the benefit of the entire
humanity, for its survival in the future. Back in the Soviet times, when Yunitski was a member of the USSR Federation of Cosmonautics, the scientific school of engineer Yunitski demonstratively proved that 3–4 generations are left before the point of no return, which leads to the end of our earthly technocratic civilization. One generation has passed since then. So, 2–3 generations are left.
The man-made earth industry (technosphere) will inevitably kill the biosphere created by God. There is only one solution – it is required to spread them in space (as it is impossible to spread them in time). The biosphere should be left on the planet,
whereas the industry should be taken to the earth orbit, to a near space. The research showed that only the Space Programme will manage to meet this challenge. The basis of this programme is made up of the most grand engineering construction on the Earth (a toroidal-shaped structure 40,000 km long and over 12,000 km in diameter, with the cross-sectional dimension of 2–3 m) – the General Planetary Vehicle.
The implementation of the Space Programme will provide the transfer of the earthly civilization to a new stage of development.
We will become a cosmic civilization, where the industry will be taken beyond the limits of our house — the biosphere of the Earth planet. We, which means also our grandchildren and great-grandchildren, will get unlimited opportunities for further technological development without any conflicts between the Earth Biosphere created by God and the Industrial Technosphere created by the Homo Sapiens.
However, humanity now lacks the most important thing — the understanding of the fact that it has no any other way. We do not have much time at our disposal to come to this understanding — not more than 2–3 generations. If we fail to understand that, the
point of no return will come — our earthly technocratic civilization will be inevitably and irrevocably killed by its own ‘baby’ — the industrial technosphere that has occupied the same niche on the planet as the biosphere.
SkyWay technologies Co. offers an innovative solution for the design and construction of flight strips (runways) for airfields. Such flight strips will have the features that fully meet the requirements and standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). A flight strip will be produced in the form of a pre-stressed cast reinforced concrete slab, clamped at the ends. A solid pre-stressed string reinforced concrete slab with a thickness of 15−25 cm, clamped at the ends, by its bearing capacity and strength will replace traditional concrete runway coverage of 30−50 cm thickness. It is justified by the strength calculations, made according to traditional methods in accordance with the acting national and international regulations. These calculations and studies on specific objects are to be done jointly with specialists of Project Bureaus, designing traditional runways (in Russia it is the State design and research Institute "Aeroproject"). The proposed technology excludes the need for expansion joints, improves evenness, strength and durability of the runway coverage. This reduces requirements to the bearing
capacity of gravel and sand cushions and underlying soil, simplifies the configuration of other elements of an airfield. The joints in the coverage will not be destroyed because of their absence. They will not produce dynamic impacts not only on the chassis of the aircraft, but also on the passengers in them. At present, for example, passengers, even while inside the aircraft cabin in soft chairs, can count the number of expansion joints on traditional runways during each takeoff and each landing.
If necessary, this solid reinforced concrete slab can be covered with a layer of asphalt concrete, which will also have no expansion joints and temperature cracks. Alongside with significant improvement of operational characteristics, such runway will be considerably less costly than a traditional one. The use of SkyWay technologies in the construction of runways will reduce costs by 20−30 percent or more alongside with improvement of their operational features and increase of their service life.
The pace of development of window industry can be compared in rate with the pace of development of such modern branches of our everyday life, as computers and means of communication. Modern windows, alongside with high aesthetic, ergonomic and architectural requirements, must perform one very important function, that is − to save energy in our homes. For example, according to the U.S. Department of Energy, the total energy losses through windows in residential and industrial sectors cost American consumers USD 25 billion a year. In hot countries (India, countries of the Arabian Peninsula, Africa, Australia, etc.) these losses are even more, but have the opposite sign — coolness created by air-conditioners should be kept in premises. These official data served as a great economic motivation for the development of energy-efficient glazing systems for buildings.
A common misunderstanding is an anecdotal evidence that ordinary double-glass units contain vacuum. This is not so. Ordinary double-glass units are filled with dry atmospheric air. They are really "insulating", "isolating", but have no vacuum. To improve the thermal insulation, the internal space of a double-glass unit can be filled with inert gases (argon, krypton, xenon or mixtures thereof) with smaller values of thermal conductivity and larger values of viscosity compared with air. Losses due to radiant heat exchange can also be reduced by using glasses with special low-emission coating on one or both inner surfaces of the unit glasses.
The use of vacuum as a thermal insulator is not a new concept. It was described in the patents even in the nineteenth century. As for the double-glass units, vacuum application was designed to eliminate heat loss due to heat conductivity and convection in the gas layer between the glass sheets. Currently, persistent searching of the optimal production technology of vacuum double-glass units continues in the world, for example, within the framework of the European Union project titled "Production
technology of highly-insulating vacuum glazing", other initiative and investment projects. All of this is a real evidence of good prospects for the application of vacuum double-glass units as a means of energy-efficient glazing of buildings.
High durability (at least 20 years) and good heat insulating properties are obtained already at the thickness of the vacuum gap of 0.05–0.1 mm (the gap in the known technologies is created by using special filling pads, which are glass beads, thin plates of stainless steel or ceramic inserts, fixed with a spacing of 20−40 mm). Such pads allow the glass unit to withstand enormous compressive strength of atmospheric air, which is approximately equal to 10 tons per square meter of glass surface.
In the proposed string-designed unit, vacuum gaps reach the thickness of 1–2 mm (this technology is one of the SkyWay know-how). A large vacuum gap, obtained with a minimum number of "bridges of cold", will significantly increase the service life (increased vacuum volume degasifies longer) and will further improve the insulating properties of the vacuum double-glass unit without increasing its cost.
When building a greenhouse or a winter garden with vacuum glass units in a cold climate, energy expenses for heating will be decreased by 90%. Solar power stations with vacuum glass units will heat water not to 60°C, but to 90°C, that is, they are transferred from installations for hot water supply to the category of installations for building heating. New technologies give scope for the imagination of architects and builders. Imagine a normal warm house with brick walls of 1.5 meter thickness and the same warm house with a wall thickness of 15–20 mm, made of vacuum double-glass units. Or — a 100-storeyed skyscraper in Sydney (moreover, with a high-rise track of "SkyWay metro"), with power consumption for air conditioning in summer and for heating in winter by several times less than for a traditional skyscraper.
Construction of bridges, viaducts, overpasses and other extended transport structures in SkyWay string technology.
SkyWay Technologies Co. offers an innovative solution for the design and construction of road, railway and pedestrian bridges, viaducts, overpasses and other extended transport structures (hereinafter — bridges). Such bridges will have features that are fully consistent with the existing national standards. For example, in the Russian Federation such a regulatory document is the Construction Norms and Regulations 2.05.03-84* "Bridges and pipes", which applies to rail, road and pedestrian bridges, bridges for metro lines and speedy trams, as well as bridges, combined with rail and road transport. In addition, string bridges correspond to national standards for the design of steel structures (in Russia it is the Construction Norms and Regulations II-23-81 "Steel structures"), all the provisions of the European Norms Project (ENV) and the new US bridge standards (AASHTO).
It is proposed to construct string bridges in the form of a pre-stressed continuous structure of steel-reinforced concrete, clamped at the ends to anchor supports, which contains road coverage, or coverage for pedestrian bridges. Solid pre-stressed
string structure, clamped at the ends, by its bearing capacity and strength will replace traditional steel, reinforced concrete or steel-reinforced concrete bridge span superstructures. It is confirmed by strength calculations, made by traditional methods in accordance with the applicable national and international standards. It is reasonable to do these calculations and studies on particular bridges jointly with specialists of the existing bridge design offices, having the experience in the design, construction and operation of suspended and cable-stayed bridges, which are structurally closest to string bridges.
Visually string bridges are similar to traditional ones because the know-how are hidden inside the structure, apart from their glaring lightness and delicateness of the structure. Thus, the proposed technology excludes the need for expansion joints throughout the whole structure, regardless of its length. It increases the smoothness, strength and durability of traditional coverage on bridges, reduces by times consumption of conventional structural materials and, consequently, reduces the cost of structures. This significantly decreases the load on intermediate supports, that are often placed in water, and accordingly, reduces the string
structure, clamped at the ends, by its bearing capacity and strength will replace traditional steel, reinforced concrete or steel-reinforced concrete bridge span superstructures. It is confirmed by strength calculations, made by traditional methods in accordance with the applicable national and international standards. It is reasonable to do these calculations and studies on particular bridges jointly with specialists of the existing bridge design offices, having the experience in the design, construction and operation of suspended and cable-stayed bridges, which are structurally closest to string bridges.
Visually string bridges are similar to traditional ones because the know-how are hidden inside the structure, apart from their glaring lightness and delicateness of the structure. Thus, the proposed technology excludes the need for expansion joints throughout the whole structure, regardless of its length. It increases the smoothness, strength and durability of traditional coverage on bridges, reduces by times consumption of conventional structural materials and, consequently, reduces the cost of structures. This significantly decreases the load on intermediate supports, that are often placed in water, and accordingly, reduces
the requirements for bearing capacity of soil. This also simplifies the design of other elements of the bridge structure. With significant improvement of operational features, such bridge would be much cheaper than traditional bridges. It is easily confirmed and justified by calculations made by traditional methods in accordance with the applicable national and international regulations.
Provided the load-bearing structures of traditional bridges are produced in string technologies (in the form of pre-stressed load-bearing beams or string trusses), their cost is reduced by 2–3 times or more alongside with increasing their durability and improving performance features. In particular, the coverage of motor-road bridges will be arranged without expansion joints, as the string bearing structure of the bridge will be produced continuous (uncut) throughout its entire length, without any transverse gaps and joints. For their erection, string bridges do not require non-traditional materials and technologies and can be built by existing bridge teams with existing construction equipment and construction machines.